"The fact is that censorship always defeats it’s own
purpose, for it creates, in the end,
the kind of society that is incapable of exercising real discretion."
07- 73 9- 1- 07
Lost Jeep Golden Spike
A couple from back east in a Rubicon. He knew how to
drive well but couldn’t fine his way out. He drove all day and spent the
night up there. He drove
all the next day... no outlet.
In late afternoon, he called out on his CB and raised
someone over on Hells Revenge. That person called James. James talked to
them a bit. He went out
to near Courthouse Wash parking lot and saw the subjects waving from up on
the Gold Bar Rim.
By the time our ATVs got to the top of Poison Spider it
was dark. The ATVs moved north until they met the subjects. They had run out
The subjects subsequently sent the 4 rescuers gift
boxes of cheeses, pepperoni and stuff.
Responders: Duckie, Lee, James, Nancy, Barbara
07- 74 9- 2- 07
Car Stuck Hey Joe Canyon
These guys were out out for a scenic drive. They got on
to the Spring Canyon Road and kept going, thinking it would lead back to
I-70, making a nice loop drive. This road got narrower and bumpier and they
kept going. Eventually, down along the Green River, they high centered their
2 wheel drive rental sedan.
They started walking, not back the way they came. A
short while later, some civilians came upon the stuck car. They said the car
was still warm. They yelled and scouted a bit. They came back to town and
reported the car to the SO and gave the license number. The RO was a rental
company in TX.
GCSAR responded with a Ranger and the backcountry
Bronco. Down Spring Canyon, out along the river for about 2 miles to
discover the car, high
centered in the middle of a narrow road. Footprints told some the story. No
vehicle could pass the stuck car and it was 5 more miles to the end of the
It was decided to go back to town and get a motorcycle which could be pushed
around the car.
John and Lee had a tough time getting even a motorcycle
around the car to continue the search.
John followed tracks everywhere. 3 people. Up river,
down river, up Hey Joe Canyon, down Hey Joe Canyon. After it got light in
the morning, he saw a canoe trip on the river. He hailed them and asked if
they’d seen any one walking the shore. "Oh that would be me," said one
person in one of the canoes. One
of the guys had hailed the canoe party to get a ride down to Mineral Canyon
to walk back to town for help.
With some doing, John got all 3 guys back to the car.
Meanwhile, Lee found the car jack in the back seat of
the car. He proceeded to jack the car up, put rocks under the wheels and
drive off the high center point. The lost people had started to do just that
but gave up cuz it "looked too dangerous." that’s when they started walking.
The sedan high centered 4 more times getting back to
Responders: John, Rex, Melissa, Jon, Lee
07- 75 9- 3- 07
Agency Assist Arches Natural Park
Litter and Wheel
This guy fell down on his chest. The people around him
thot he was having a heart attack.
GCSAR assisted Arches personnel with the carry out of
this subject. St Mary’s helicopter landed near Landscape Arch.
Responders: Nancy, Steve
All: I want to extend my thanks to all of
you, plus Kiersa (CCOE) and Glenn Sherrill, for working on Sunday's Black
Arch Overview SAR and/or the Tuesday morning Landscape Arch SAR. Both of
these incidents came at busy times, and it was tough to find enough people
to help. This makes your participation all the more important and
appreciated. Thanks to your hard work, both situations had good resolutions.
Bego: Please pass on our thanks to Nancy May and Steve
Brownell from Grand County SAR for their assistance!
Sincerely, Laura E. Joss
Superintendent, Arches National Park
"Censorship reflects a society’s lack of confidence in
itself." Potter Stewart
XX 9- 5- 07
Airplane Crash Book Cliffs
They were looking for Elk and flew up a canyon they
could fly out of and crash landed on a ridge way up in the Book Cliffs,
miles from anywhere. The two walked away. Cell phoned, gave coordinates.
Dispatch asked us for a map with an X marking the spot.
The DPS helicopter from SLC flew down to resolve the
Responders: Pace did well in the DPS helo
07- 76 9- 7- 07
Agency Assist Arches Nat’l Park
Female hiker having trouble with her knees out by
Double O Arch. We assisted with the carry out.
Responders: Frank, Steve, Mike
07- 77 9- 15- 07
Biker Down SRBT
From the initial 3rd party reports it was hard to tell
if this guy wanted help. Then he did.
We responded with a Ranger and went out to The Half
Pipe. By then, the EMTs had his broken arm bandaged and all walked out to
the parking lot.
Responders: John, Melissa, Mike, James, Bego, Duckie
07- 78 9- 15, 16- 07
Hunter Injury Book Cliffs
This incident happened high up in the Book Cliffs maybe
10 horse miles from any road. This country is heavily timbered and is way
more steep than flat.
Before sunset this guy was injured when his horse
rolled on top of him and the pommel landed on his sternum. His son cell
phoned from a higher point on
Ambulance, GCSAR and CareFlight paged. We all met at
UDOT Road Shed in Thompson to develop a plan. Deputy Pace said going in
take a looong time with a lot of hiking. CareFlight was not very interested
in such a mission especially cuz it looked like the nearest guaranteed LZ
would be a
mile from the subject.
We decided to call the Department of Public Safety
helicopter in SLC. He would respond.
At 0130 hours, the helo took EMT James with medical
equipment and a litter/backboard kit up to the site. The LZ up there was
perched on the ridge edge
in heavy brush. A hot unload situation.
EMT James fixed up his subject and with the help of the
other hunters, loaded him in the helo. The injured subject was transferred
to the CareFlight helo
down by I-70.
We got back to town just before 1st light.
Responders: John, Melissa, Bego
Lori Bell, EMT and FireFighter of Thompson, for her hospitality.
Democracies don’t easily adopt painful measures.
"People who use information as power do not make good
leaders." The FEMA guy last year
07- 79 9-22- 07
Biker Down SRBT
A dehydrated guy at the Half Pipe. He tried to get up
and continue walking out to the parking lot but couldn’t. He was wheeled to
the Ranger and taken to
Responders: Margy. Rex, Lee, Melissa, Barbara
followed immediately by.......
07- 80 9- 22- 07
Biker Down Porcupine Rim
Rain storms and lightning all around, fast weather.
This biker crashed at The Diving Board. He fell on the handlebars on his
stomach. Big hurt.
They had cell phone contact with dispatch and borrowed
a stronger battery from a local biker. A second call asked for a helicopter
cuz the patient was
getting worse and it was getting darker, colder and the weather was moving
We responded to the trailhead with ATVs. They called
back to say he was really hurting and feared internal bleeding / injuries.
CareFlight was paged but they needed coordinates. No
one out there had a GPS and we didn’t know the Diving Board location. They
said they were 8
miles out on the trail so we gave coords for that area, derived from the
Moab North map.
With darkness impending and fast, stormy weather
around, the helo came to those coords and looked up and down the road for a
few minutes. It then
landed near the patient with directions from a cell phone thru dispatch. No
problem. GCSAR members continued to the rest of the party to distribute
GCSAR members got a good drenching on the way out.
Responders: Rex, Lee, Melissa, Duckie, Bego, Margy, John
Chris W...... forwarded your e-mail to me. I am very grateful
to you and the whole SAR Team. I wish I could thank you guys in person but I
am in Maine
and do not know when I will be back in Moab if ever. That being said I feel
compelled to send you E-Mail to tell you and your team. THANK YOU. I never
got a chance to meet the Men and Woman that were looking for us. The
helicopter arrived first so I was gone when the team arrived. I will be
truthful with you,
I thought I was going to die on that ridge. It was not until I could hear
the ATV's off in the distance did I feel like I had a chance of getting of
the mountain. As
you know the Helicopter took me to Grand Junction where I had surgery to
repair my small intestine. A few days after the surgery when I was able to
walk, I went downstairs to the Air Ambulance office and was able to meet and
thank the air crew that picked me up. It was a good feeling to say thank you
and shake there hands. I Wish I could do this with the SAR Team. Please Let
your Guys know that I am doing fine. I am still working on recovering and
hope to be back
on my bike by spring.
07- 81 9- 29- 07
Overdue boaters Colorado River
A not so forthright boater we’ll call Bob.
The call came from "a third party" (Bob) that 2 boats
and folks were stuck upstream, incapable of rowing to the take out cuz of
VERY high winds and it
was getting too cold for how they weren’t prepared. It’s well known in the
boating world that high winds delay boaters regularly coming out of
At first it was hard to tell if there was a "real"
GCSAR and NPS responded with the NPS river boat. An
ambulance was also dispatched.
The ambulance got to Cisco where this third party (Bob)
waved them down and said the boaters had made it out safely. 10- 22.
It was discovered thru subsequent detective work that
Bob was the permit holder, trip leader and the 911 caller. Said he had been
boating for 20 years.
If he is so experienced, why wasn’t his party prepared to hang out for
awhile and stay warm? And reach the take out.
Responders: Nancy, Melissa, Barbara, Lee, Bego NPS boaters: TBerry
07- 82 10- 7- 07
Biker Down Porcupine Rim Trail
Mountain biker with broken ankle, 2 1/2 miles in on the
We responded with ATVs and EMS.
Responders: Rex, Jim, Lee, Mike, Jim
07- 83 10- 9- 07
Lost Mountain Biker Bitter Creek
Near the end of a GCSAR meeting at 2100 hours, Eric 1 T
13 came in to advise of an overdue mountain biker over by the Colorado State
Line. She had been missing since 1600 hrs. He said Mesa County was
responding with ATV searchers and we should field a team also.
So, 5 of us with 4 ATVs responded to Westwater Exit and
I-70 to pick up communications with Mesa County. Radio channels established,
to the railroad tracks near the Westwater Ranch to unload. As we were
briefing our plan, Mesa County located the biker.
Responders: Bego, John, Lee, Mike, Steve
07- 84 10- 12- 07
Biker Down Klondike Bluffs
She put a gash near her knee so someone in her party
called 911. GCSAR and EMS responded behind Archie 1 T 4.
Then we heard that she was getting a ride out on a
motorcycle. When everyone met, she refused services.
Responders: Bego, Lee, Jim
Meanwhile, Arches NP had a big event in the Fiery Furnace.
XX 10- 12, 13, 14- 07
NPS Technical Rock Rescue Above and below the
Shafer Bench, ISKY
A fun 3 day shindig put on by TBerry of NPS fame.
At long last, single rope techniques (always with a
second rope belay) were practiced. Good ol’ rappelling and ascending. Then
one litter evolution (lower
and raise) with the litter empty. On the 3rd day, we set up the AZ Vortex
and did 2 evolutions with a subject in the litter. Nice.
Responders from GCSAR: Jim, Ken, Bego
From NPS: A bunch
SLACK: Strength of
materials. Lines of force
07- 85 10- 15- 07
Biker Down SRBT
07- 86 10- 15- 07
Biker Down Hidden Valley Trail
Shoulder problem. By the time EMS and GCSAR arrived he
was walking down and refused services.
07- 87 10- 17- 07
Stranded Merrimac Butte
Something about leaving a note somewhere, vehicle
stuck??, to call SAR if they weren’t out by such and such a time.
We went looking but had hardly gotten started when the
turned up OK... in town. Oh?
Responders: Frank, Lee, Mike, Steve, Bego
Are You Safe? (Article from the Cragmont Climbing
Club newsletter, The Crag)
By Dan Zimmerlin
Of course you are. You have been climbing for a fair length of time and
have had no problems. A record of safety does indicate something. One big
that you probably have the good judgment not to get into bad situations. But
what if something does go wrong, despite judgment? Will you know how to deal
with it? And what about your partners? What do you know about them? Sure,
you have known some of them for quite a while. You know what they know
and you know they have good judgment. That is one reason they are your
friends. But what about the others? The ones you don't know so well? What do
Currently in the Club, membership is decided almost exclusively on
judgment. Someone comes out on a club trip and climbs with members. That
can then become a member based on the recommendation of the members he or
she climbed with. If the members believe that climber to be the kind of
person we would like to climb with, to have the judgment to climb safely at
whatever level they are at, then they can become a member. (See Membership
procedures.) Obviously members are evaluating the new person's judgment on
relatively little interaction. In fact I think this is just fine. If
everyone has the judgment to play conservatively, not push the limits too
hard and leave a wide margin for error, then I think we can climb reasonably
safely, individually and as a club.
The only problem with this is it doesn't lend itself to much adventure or
excitement. Yes, you can get good, like the sport climber who pushes the
physical limits but always has a bolt nearby. But can you safely go out and
do something adventurous? Manage the risk and consequences? What do you need
to push out a little further?
First and foremost, you need experience. If you really have been climbing
a while then you have probably been in a lot of different circumstances and
you have come to recognize potential difficulties. You know what bad pro
looks like as well as what those clouds are likely to do. Experience is a
great teacher. You undoubtedly have developed quite a bit of knowledge about
what is safe and what is not. And maybe you have run across most of the
major safety techniques
in the course of your career. But when you are relatively new, there is this
problem, commonly known as the bootstrap problem: You need experience to be
safe and you need to be safe to gain experience.
The traditional way our progenitors in the Sierra Club Rock Climbing
Section (RCS) [1950s-60s] dealt with this was to have each prospective
a series of ten safety tests for membership. The idea was that new people
would gain experience while preparing for the tests and demonstrate specific
skills in passing the tests. For a number of reasons that are not important
here, the Club abandoned these tests when we separated from the Sierra Club.
But several of
us who were around back in the "good old days" of the RCS feel that we may
have thrown the baby out with the bath water. I am not proposing that we go
back to having formal tests. And we had considered developing a self-test
procedure, but never got it together. (There are some technical problems I'd
happy to discuss with anyone who is interested in this idea.) I thought
maybe a first step would be to air some of the issues and let the judgment
members take it from there.
So I will recap the ten RCS tests and give my current thoughts on each,
as well as some overarching perspective. If nothing else, perhaps this will
all to think about and discuss safety issues with each other and most
especially with our partners. And if it leads to anyone realizing they could
use a little work
on anything, I'd be happy to meet you out at Cragmont to practice.
RCS Tests [ This is the stuff of Bego at age 14. TBerry grew up like this
too. All belaying was the Sitting Hip Belay, Goldline laid rope, no rappel
devices other than the body and biners, Prusik knots cuz no mechanical
ascenders, webbing harness or just a Swami belt, bowlines, no 8’s.]
1. With an upper belay, climb up and down a short pitch...
OK. So you have to start somewhere. But this isn't really about testing
one's ability to climb up and down. It is about how to do it safely. Like
did you check
your knot? Do you use proper rope signals: On Belay, Up Rope, etc.? How
about the silent ones: three tugs? And what if the rope doesn't go up?
Established procedures and some variations for the common mishaps.
2. Tie into an anchor and belay another up a pitch ... These
procedures must be demonstrated twice: belaying a "second" climbing up from
below and belaying
a "leader" climbing above you.
Obviously we all must have good belay technique, more than just not
letting go with the brake hand (which we all seem to do on occasion.) It
a good stance and holding a test fall. It may include knowing what it feels
like for a leader to clip and maybe even what the rope will do in a leader
fall. It takes time and different settings.
3. Demonstrate your ability to rappel using a body rappel, to
rappel using a carabiner-brake rappel and to stop in mid-rappel and tie
Getting used to rappelling took me a very long time. I sure would not
have liked to do my first rappel off some spire where you have to ease off
the top from above the anchors. Maybe you don't need to know a body rappel,
but I for one actually lost my figure-8 (walking to the descent route) and
had to remember
the carabiner-brake for real. And we used to require that people use a
prusik on a rappel. We seem to have abandoned that, even though it was
safer. How about using a prusik to un-jam a rappel device? Or to pass a
knot? I think there is more to rappelling than sliding down a rope.
4. While hanging free from the rope, rig prusik slings and prusik
up over an overhang.
So you are stuck on a ledge. Your partner has led up over a bulge which
you can't follow. You are tempted to batman up the 15 ft of hard stuff to
easier ground. DON'T DO IT! Do I have to draw you a picture? That's like
being 15 ft above a ledge with no protection in. You slip and you'll find
back on that ledge with broken bones. Prusik up and tie back up knots behind
you. That is what the technique is for. Learn it. And then think about other
times you might apply it. (I used it last weekend to get out of a mess.)
5. Demonstrate your ability to set up and retrieve rappels... on
natural anchors, artificial anchors (chocks) and on bolts.
Rappel anchors is one of those things that are probably best learned in
the field. On the other hand, you don't want to be figuring it out when
setting up rappels
in the dark after taking too long on a climb. And there are some specific
techniques that keep you from wasting a lot of time, if not worse. Get your
practice before you push the envelop.
6. From a lower belay position you have chosen, hold three falls
of a 120 lb. weight dropped at least 15 ft.
The dreaded weight test. It is far from a perfect simulation. Still it is
worth experiencing if you have never caught a real fall. Two things to
notice: how little time you have to react and how much force is involved.
7. From a belay position you have set up, hold a fall, tie off the
fallen climber in such a way that he/she is securely anchored and that you
may get up from your belay.
I have been climbing for 20 years and have rescued several injured
climbers. But I have never needed to tie off a climber. The closest I ever
came was not an injured leader, but a frozen follower. If he hadn't
responded to the logic that he had no choice but to follow the pitch (we
were 3 pitches up, including an ugly traverse), then I was going to tie him
off and go down and kick him up the pitch. My point being, I had options.
You can't use what you don't know.
8. Demonstrate your ability to carry out a multi-pitch climb. You
will be expected to lead one pitch placing protection (both natural and
artificial) which is
capable of holding a leader fall. In addition, your ability to set up
anchors, to effectively manage the rope, and to clean a pitch will be
This is clearly a big one. It has many parts. Anchors alone has many
subtleties. For example, a lot has been written lately about load-sharing
anchors. I am all
for it. Just don't forget the basics: multiple independent anchors. Think
about Piana and Skinner on the Salathe when the block with several bolts
that everything was tied to came loose and took them over the edge. Only
because Piana had put a #2 friend in a separate crack, attached with an
independent sling, did they live. Otherwise they would have gone with the
rest of their gear to the valley floor, 3000 ft below. And then there is
rope management. There is more to rope management than flaking.
But this test was also meant to be more than the sum of its parts. Being
able to manage multi-pitch climbing efficiently and safely is central to our
9. Demonstrate your ability to follow and lead an aid pitch.
So maybe we should drop this one. If you want to go do big walls, then
you should get some specialized practice. And free climbers just don't use
aid techniques much anymore. Maybe this could be replaced with emergency aid
techniques, like how to rig slings to aid up a short crack you can't lead.
10. While you are on an out of town trip demonstrate your ability
to use the techniques you have learned...
This is essentially the one test we kept. Come climbing with us and show
us that you can do it all safely.
The first four tests were Part I of the test sheet. These were the basic
skills one should demonstrate to be a competent second. You would know how
to climb, belay, rappel and self-rescue by prusiking. Part II, tests 5-9,
were the skills one should be able to demonstrate to be considered a well
rounded leader. And
test 10 was the final exam.
Obviously I do not believe that these tests contain all the skills one
needs to be a competent climber. Maybe in the oblique logic of tests, if you
around long enough to have learned and demonstrated your ability to do these
things, then you probably have picked up all the stuff that is not
mentioned in the tests. I am certain this is not true of our current
assessment. But then, if you have the judgment,
you will take the time to learn these
things as well as all the stuff not mentioned.
07- 88 10- 27- 07
Motorcycle Wreck White Wash Sand Dunes
Brent 1 T 11 Pace solved this with coordinates from the
RP and St Mary’s CareFlight. 10-22 for us.
Responders: Bego, Dave, Barbara, John, Melissa, Steve
To me it was Damoclean.
"Enjoy the banquet, but hanging over your head,
suspended by a single horsehair, is a sword whose bielby layer is a single
Upper Colorado River Basin Hydrology
April through July unregulated inflow to Lake Powell in 2007 was 4.05
million acre-feet, only 51 percent of average. Water year inflow to Lake
2007 (October 2006 through September 2007) was 68 percent of average. The
2007 water year inflow was boosted by the heavy storm events that took
place in October 2006 resulting in Lake Powell increasing by 6.2 feet during
that particular month. Inflow to Lake Powell is currently 9,600 cfs (October
1, 2007). Total inflow in September 2007 was 296,000 acre-feet, or 62
percent of average.
Lake Powell reached a seasonal peak elevation of 3,611.7 feet on June 25,
2007. The current elevation of Lake Powell (October 1, 2007) is 3,601.9 feet
with 11.93 million acre-feet of storage (49 percent of capacity). The
elevation of Lake Powell is currently nearly identical to what it was one
year ago today.
[On October 1, 2006 the elevation of Lake Powell was 3601.7 feet] The water
surface elevation of Lake Powell will likely decrease between now and March
of 2008. The projected elevation of Lake Powell on January 1, 2008 is 3,596
Upper Colorado River Basin Drought
The Upper Colorado River Basin is experiencing a protracted multiyear
drought. Since 1999, inflow to Lake Powell has been below average in every
In the summer of 1999, Lake Powell was essentially full with reservoir
storage at 23.5 million acre-feet, or 97 percent of capacity. Inflow to Lake
1999 was 109 percent of average. The manifestation of drought conditions in
the Upper Colorado River Basin began in the fall months of 1999. A five year
period of extreme drought occurred in water years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
and 2004 with unregulated inflow to Lake Powell only 62, 59, 25, 51, and 49
percent of average, respectively. Lake Powell storage decreased through this
five-year period, with reservoir storage reaching a low of 8.0 million
(33 percent of capacity) on April 8, 2005.
Drought conditions eased in water year 2005 in the Upper Colorado River
Basin. Precipitation was above average in 2005 and unregulated inflow to
Lake Powell was 105 percent of average. Lake Powell increased by 2.77
million acre-feet (31 feet in elevation) during water year 2005. But as is
often the case,
one favorable year does not necessarily end a protracted drought. In 2006,
there was a return to drier conditions in the Colorado River Basin.
inflow to Lake Powell in water year 2006 was only 71 percent of average.
Water year 2007 was another year of below average inflow with unregulated
inflow into Lake Powell at 68 percent of average. Over the past 8 years
(2000 through 2007, inclusive), inflow to Lake Powell will have been below
average in all but one year (2005). Reservoir storage in Lake Powell and
Lake Mead has decreased during the past 8 years.
Reservoir storage in Lake Powell and Lake Mead is currently 49 and 48
percent of capacity, respectively.
Updated: Nov 1, 2007 Tom Ryan
Ten Essentials means Be Prepared
Summary- brain, matches, water,
Keep Warm: When your body core drops
below a certain temperature, you will become a victim and the other 9
essentials won’t matter a hoot.
You can go 3 days without
water if sitting still in the shade but you will die soon if you are too
cold. Light a fire. Wind chill is an enemy, even
in the summer.
Fire- If you are below timberline and get caught out,
here’s number one. Waterproof matches or a DRY lighter that has gas in it.
Fire kit includes
a Knife so you can whittle a stick down to dry wood tinder. Practice. You
have to practice fire making.
Clothing- Dress in layers. Inside layer should never be
cotton. Wool is good. Synthetics best. Outer clothing is wind proof cuz of
wind chill. Warm hat,
gloves, footware. Carry a rain jacket in every season for that surprise cold
Space Blanket- For 2 ounces, an easy shelter for you and your
Keep Cool in the Summer- Start early,
take shade rests, big hat, protect skin from sun.
Summer thunderstorms can get you very cold in minutes. Spring and Fall =
large T variations.
Water- In the summer heat more than a gallon per day. 2 bike
bottles not enough. Get a 100 oz Camelback. Drinking just water with no
is also bad = hyponatremia = water intox. Balance electrolytes (especially
sodium) and water carefully. "Sports Drinks" good.
Eat a little regularly. Salty food for Sodium when sweating a lot. Potato
Seeing at Night:
Headlamp- A lot of folks have to spend the night out (got
matches?) for lack of light. Carry a good headlamp & spare batteries. Start
your outing early
in the day (cooler). Be aware of moon cycles- for half the month, the moon
is quite bright much of the night.
--> Tell someone where you are going and when
you will return <--
Map, Compass, GPS- Navigation is an art. Be sure you know
where you are going and have a reasonable estimate of the time needed to get
to the car. A GPS without batteries or practice is nothing. Learn
navigational tools, skills. Map reading. A keen sense of "dead reckoning" is
helpful. Take a charged CELL PHONE.
It might work.
Fix You- Stop the bleeding. Gauze,
tape. Wound cleansing. Blister stuff. Sliver grippers. Includes HAT,
sunglasses, sunscreen, bug spray. Cover up
from the sun. Hydrate, eat.
Fix Stuff- Repair, patch kits, tools for your equipment.
Duct tape, bailing wire, small cord....?
Some of your pack will be seasonal, terrain and task
dependent. How big a pack needed?
How long will you
be out? Communications? What about winter travel? Mountains or prairie?
extra warmth when snowmobiling --tech rope equip --TP -- Jolly Ranchers
FORMAT and ACCURACY of COORDINATES
Latitude and Longitude: read north (up), then west (left)
--D.dd Degrees and decimal parts of
degrees. Like "On Star," some web sites, etc
4 or 5 digits right of the decimal point.
--DMS Degrees, Minutes and Seconds-
what most people think they know
N 38º 34’ 27.4"
W 109º 32’ 50.7"
1 second of latitude is about 101 feet 1
second of longitude is about 80 feet
Therefore, tenths of seconds are not important.
--DM.m Degrees and decimal
parts of minutes- most GPS units default to this format
N 38º 34.457’
W 109º 32.844’
One tenth minute latitude is about 607 feet, one tenth minute longitude
about 484 feet.
1/10 min = 607 ft
1/10 min= 484 ft (about 80% of 607)
1/100 min= 60 ft
1/100 min= 48 ft
1/1000 min= 6 ft
1/1000 min= 5 ft
1 minute of latitude = 1 nautical mile = 1852 meters = 6076+ feet = 1.15
"A nautical mile per minute" for latitude, less for longitude due to
Grand County is close to a ONE Degree square= 60 nautical miles N-S (69 mi),
Transverse Mercator (one of many types of map
projections of the earth)
-- Read right (easting), then up (northing)
-- Numbers are real meters on the ground.
-- All zones in USA are 6º wide by 8º tall.
-- We are Zone 12 S (S is NOT for South)
06 26 539- (126,539 meters from the
42 70 329- (meters North of the equator)
centerline of zone 12)
06 26 53 is accurate to 10 meters
06 26 5 is accurate to 100 meters
06 26 is accurate to 1000 meters. This is the UTM grid printed
on our 7 1/2’ topo maps
06 2 is accurate to 10,000 meters. These are the grid ticks on the 1:100,000
Continuing.......... into the National Grid Reference System (NGRS),
part of NIMS
The hundred thousand meter grid (the 05, 06 and 42, 43 in GRCO) will become
Both 100,000 letters will be together followed by the easting then northing.
Instead of 06 26 443
by 42 70 501 that we now use (and will
continue to do so)
NGRS says XH2644370501 accuracy to 1 meter
XH2670 accuracy to 1,000 meters.
THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM
Incidents in Grand County are handled using the Incident Command System (
ICS ). It is flexible, expanding and contracting as you need it.